The students of Gymnasium Vukovar combined interest in technology, love for Slavonia as well as a certain level of knowledge and created a technological solution that contributes to the achievement of the global goals of sustainable development. As part of the international eTwinning project The green changemakers, they have developed a technological solution that has several integrated global goals in its nature and offers the possibility ofimminent poverty and hungerand fasting for sustainable agriculture, whichroms prosperity for people of all generations. The technological solution offers access to reliable, sustainable and modern energy at affordable prices for all, the idea of sustainablyg water management through the integration of adaptivee infrastructuree that can help withlessinequality within and between countries. In addition to preventing climate change, it prevents sustainable uses of terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity about sigura, making homes, cities, settlements and villages an inclusive, safe, adaptable and sustainable place to live.
The IoT 4 SDGs project supports every farmer, family farm or agricultural industry in the form of monitoring, automation and data analysis using IoT with the aim of managing agricultural areas while saving time, money, resources such as water and electricity as well as preserving ecosystems. The designed IoT-based smart agriculture solution offers the opportunity to improve the entire agricultural system by monitoring fields in real time.
In the IoT-based smart agriculture project, a system has been built to monitor crop fields with the help of light, temperature and soil and air humidity sensors, whereby farmers can monitor conditions on the ground from anywhere. These sensors provide data that helps not only track but also optimize crops by adapting to changes in environmental conditions.
IoT connectivity allows all types of physical sensors to send data directly to virtual dashboards without human interaction. The sensors used within the IoT device are designed to detect, measure and report one variable at a time in the real world and time. In this way , they help to understand everything around us in a measurable and universal way.
The impacts of climate change are increasingly evident. The frequency and extent of the devastation and destruction caused by the weather is getting stronger and more frequent. According to a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2021), climate change is intensifying the water cycle, leading to intensifying droughts in many regions. Slavonia is no exception. Drought is the main and most common cause of unprofitable yields of the most important crops and in the future droughts and increasing in intensity are predicted to become more frequent. Our smart water system is based on the Internet of Things (IoT) sensor, and thanks to big data and analytics, it can reduce the amount of water consumed during agricultural and production processes and improve the efficiency of water distribution systems.
Soil moisture sensors determine soil moisture, with a constant for dry soil between 3 and 5, about one for air and about 80 for water. As such, they are integrated into the irrigation system in agriculture to help in the effective organization of the water supply. Such gauges help reduce or improve irrigation in an accurate and timely way, saving water to achieve optimal plant growth.
Temperature sensors measure the amount of heat in the source, allowing to detect temperature changes while converting detected changes into data. These sensors are useful for the operation of irrigation systems since they provide timely data and, for example, prevent irrigation at low temperatures when the water freezes. By using management and control data, soil sensors contribute to labour savings in agricultural work and reduce the wastage of valuable resources such as water.
Light sensors can be used for all types of purposes, for example, for time monitoring, as well as applications in agriculture where measuring light absorbed by soil is essential.
Humidity sensors in a number of production processes are used to measure and maintain the necessary microclimate, especially the specified water vapor content in the air or gas. For this purpose, instruments such as hygrometer and hygrostat are used, while in models that we make in school and start using a microcontroller we use the DHT 11, 21 or 22 sensor. Withan ensor of humidity, it is used not only in production (for example, to determine the properties of wood), but can be used to regulate the dryness of air in rooms such as warehouses of agricultural products or crops on site so that we have accurate information for harvesting, etc.
Applying IoT sensors to create smart agriculture helps farmers monitor temperature, light, humidity levels, crop health, and more—helping them take care of their crops proactively, rather than constantly reacting when things go wrong.
As this technology is constantly improving and becoming cheaper over time, and there are more and more young people creating their views on possible solutions, just like us, we believe and hope that smart agriculture will come to life!
The world's population is expected to increase from the current level of just over seven billion people to nine or ten billion people by 2050 and simply not enough resources left to feed unless we turn to smart agriculture.
The use of IoT sensors helps farmers track crops in real time, helping to ensure the exact amount of water and nutrients each plant needs at any given time – neither too little nor too much. And all this means less waste for the environment with maximum food production through sustainable methods that are good for both humans and animals.